Cover cropping is the process of planting a certain type of crop just before the winter or off season, then tilling them under when spring rolls around. Other than the joy of getting to plant when you normally don't there are many other added benefits, such as: lessening erosion, suppressing weeds, preventing runoff, reducing compaction, helping prevent disease and pests, and adds organic matter back into the soil. It is a very simple task that is very beneficial and requires very little maintenance. You and your garden will be thankful you did this when it comes time to plant your veggies.
The process of planting a cover crop is very simple. About 30 days before the expected first frost loosen the soil, broadcast the seeds, rake them in, and water. The hardest part about it will probably be choosing the right crop. Here is a handy chart from Cornell University.
How you maintain your cover crop will be dependent on the type you choose. Some you can plant and leave all winter and others might require you to mow or kill periodically. It is recommended that you read up on which ever crop you choose and make sure you take proper care of it for best results.
About 2-3 weeks before you are ready to plant your spring harvest you will want to mow down the cover crops. After waiting a couple days for them to dry out you will want to till them under the soil using a garden tiller or cultivator. Doing this in advance will give them time to decompose and replenish your soil with the nutrients that will help your fruits and veggies grow.
So there you have it. A simple process with so many benefits you will wonder why you weren't cover cropping sooner.